Vitamin World

Retinol Cream 100000 IU

Images

Retinol Cream 100000 IU

Vitamin World

Retinol Cream 100000 IU

2 oz. Cream / 100000 IU / Item# 005510
Buy 1, Get 1 Free
Add 2 items into the cart
Details
Add 2 items into the cart to receive the discount.

  • $9.49
    Price per oz. : $4.75

    In Stock

  • DESCRIPTION +
    • A vitamin-enriched face and eye cream
    • Provides nourishing protection for your skin
    • Gentle, lightweight formula

    Get the moisture you need for radiant, healthy skin with Retinol Cream. Apply Retinol Cream to your face daily for hydrated skin. You can even apply it around the delicate skin of your eye area for hydrating moisture that’ll make your skin look and feel radiant!
  • LABEL INFORMATION +
    Directions: Apply a small amount to face at bedtime, after cleansing.

    Other Ingredients: Water, Propylene Glycol, Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil, Glyceryl Stearate, Mineral Oil, Stearic Acid, Cetyl Esters, Propylene Glycol (and) Diazolidinyl Urea (and) Methylparaben (and) Propylparaben, Triethanolamine, Isopropyl Myristate, Retinyl Palmitate (Vitamin A), Cetyl Alcohol, Dimethicone, Fragrance, Tocopherol (Vitamin E), Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E), Disodium EDTA, Yellow 10.

    WARNING: Do not apply to broken or irritated skin or areas affected by rashes. Discontinue use and consult your doctor if skin sensitivity occurs. Avoid contact with eyes. Do not use on children or animals.
  • RATINGS & REVIEWS +
  • HEALTH NOTES +

    Disclaimer

    The following information is third party literature provided by Aisle 7. Vitamin World does not endorse, represent or warrant the accuracy or reliability of the content provided by Aisle 7. This content is not approved or recommended by us, does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment, and is not meant to replace professional medical advice or apply to any products. To continue to Aisle 7 please click Continue.

    Nutritional Supplement

    Vitamin A

    This nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
    • Immune System Support

      Infection

      Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.
      Infection
      ×
       

      Nutrients useful for maintaining healthy immune function are also applicable for preventing infections. Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.1 However, most research shows that while vitamin A supplementation helps people prevent or treat infections in developing countries where deficiencies are common,2 little to no positive effect, and even slight adverse effects, have resulted from giving vitamin A supplements to people in countries where most people consume adequate amounts of vitamin A.3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Moreover, vitamin A supplementation during infections appears beneficial only in certain diseases. An analysis of trials revealed that vitamin A reduces mortality from measles and diarrhea, but not from pneumonia, in children living in developing countries.10 A double-blind trial for vitamin A supplementation in Tanzanian children with pneumonia confirmed its lack of effectiveness for this condition.11 In general, parents in the developed world should not give vitamin A supplements to children unless there is a reason to believe vitamin A deficiency is likely, such as the presence of a condition causing malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease). However, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children with measles should be given high-dose vitamin A for several days.

    • Children's Health

      Childhood Diseases

      Vitamin A plays a critical role in proper immune function, it has been used successfully to prevent and treat measles and to treat chicken pox.
      Childhood Diseases
      ×
       

      Preliminary research shows that supplemental vitamin A improves the likelihood that the measles vaccine will provide protection.12 Vitamin A has, since the 1920s, been the subject of much research into the prevention and treatment of childhood exanthems, particularly measles.13 This nutrient has a critical role in proper immune function, and there is evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces the incidence and severity of, and deaths from, childhood measles.14,15 The World Health Organization (WHO) has therefore recommended that children with signs of deficiency receive supplementation with vitamin A. The recommended amounts are 100,000 IU for children younger than one year and 200,000 IU for children older than one year, immediately upon diagnosis, and repeated once the next day and once in one to four weeks.16 A controlled trial of African children given vitamin A supplementation according to the WHO’s recommendations found that severity of measles and its long-term consequences were reduced by 82% on day eight, 61% in week six, and 85% six months after the onset.17

      Another controlled trial found that giving approximately 200,000 IU of vitamin A once during measles illness was not adequate to provide any benefit in African children whose vitamin A status was unknown.18 In a controlled prevention study, Indian children treated with 2,500 mcg (8,333 IU) of vitamin A weekly had fewer measles complications and less than half of the rate of death as compared with children receiving placebo;19 but in another study, Indian children receiving 200,000 IU of vitamin A every six months did not have a different rate of total infectious illness nor rate of death as compared with children receiving placebo.20

      An analysis of 20 controlled trials concluded that vitamin A supplementation reduced deaths from measles respiratory infection by 70%.21 While vitamin A deficiency is widespread in developing countries, it has also been reported in the United States and has been linked with more severe cases of measles.22 The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended supplementation with vitamin A for children between the ages of six months and two years who are hospitalized with measles and its complications. The recommended amount is a single administration of 100,000 IU for children aged 6 to 12 months and 200,000 IU for children older than 1 year, followed by a second administration 24 hours later and a third after four weeks in children who are likely to have vitamin A deficiency.23

      One trial showed that low levels of vitamin A are more prevalent in children with measles than in similar children without measles, with levels rising back to normal several days after the onset of the infection. This observation led the authors of the study to conclude that vitamin A deficiency is a consequence of infection with the measles virus and to recommend supplementation with vitamin A during measles infection even when prior deficiency is not suspected.24 Vitamin A stores have also been shown to be depleted during chicken pox infection,25 and some preliminary data supports its use in treatment of chicken pox. In a controlled trial, in which children without vitamin A deficiency were given either 200,000 IU of vitamin A or placebo one time during chicken pox, the children given vitamin A had shorter duration of illness and fewer severe complications. The researchers then treated the patients’ siblings with vitamin A before chicken pox became evident, and they had an even shorter length of illness.26

      Measles

      In developing countries where vitamin A deficiency is common, preventive supplementation with vitamin A reduced the risk of death in children with measles.
      Measles
      ×
       

      Measles appears to increase the body’s need for vitamin A.27,28 Studies in developing countries have shown that measles infection is more frequent and severe in people with low vitamin A blood levels,29,30 and preliminary research suggests this may also be true in the developed world.31,32,33 Repeatedly in controlled trials, preventive supplementation with vitamin A, at oral doses of up to 400,000 IU per day, reduced the risk of death in children with measles living in developing countries.29,35,36 Whether vitamin A supplementation would help people with measles in developed countries, where deficiency is uncommon, is less clear.29 However, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children with measles be given a short course of high-dose vitamin A. Two controlled studies of urban South African38 and Japanese39 children hospitalized with severe measles showed that supplementation with 100,000 to 400,000 IU of vitamin A resulted in faster recoveries, fewer complications, and fewer pneumonia-related deaths. An older study in England found one ounce per day of cod liver oil (containing about 40,000 IU of vitamin A, plus vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids) reduced measles-related deaths in children hospitalized with severe cases of the disease.40 Such large doses of vitamin A should only be taken under a doctor’s supervision.

    • Eye Health Support

      Night Blindness

      Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend supplementing with vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency.
      Night Blindness
      ×

      Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency.39,40 Such a deficiency may result from diets low in animal foods (the main source of vitamin A), such as eggs, dairy products, organ meats, and some fish. Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, may also contribute to a vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend 10,000 to 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency. Beta-carotene is less effective at correcting vitamin A deficiency than is vitamin A itself, because it is not absorbed as well and is only slowly converted by the body into vitamin A.

    • Heart and Circulatory Health

      Anemia

      Vitamin A deficiency can contribute to anemia, supplementing with this vitamin may restore levels and improve symptoms.
      Anemia
      ×
       

      Deficiencies of iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid are the most common nutritional causes of anemia.41 Although rare, severe deficiencies of several other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A,42,43vitamin B2,44vitamin B6,45,46vitamin C,47 and copper,48,49 can also cause anemia by various mechanisms. Rare genetic disorders can cause anemias that may improve with large amounts of supplements such as vitamin B1.50,51

    • Oral Health

      Leukoplakia

      Vitamin A has been shown to be effective against leukoplakia.
      Leukoplakia
      ×

      Beta-carotene is the most widely used supplement in the treatment of leukoplakia. In a clinical trial of betel nut chewers with leukoplakia, supplementation with 150,000 IU of beta-carotene twice per week for six months significantly increased the remission rate compared with placebo (14.8% vs. 3.0%).52 The effectiveness of beta-carotene for treating leukoplakia was also confirmed in a double-blind trial that used 100,000 IU per day for six months.53 In one trial, supplementation with 33, 333 IU of beta-carotene per day, alone or combined with 50 IU of vitamin E, was reported not to reduce the incidence of leukoplakia.54 These results have also been observed in smaller trials.55,56

      Drug therapy with a synthetic, prescription form of vitamin A (known as Accutane®, isotretinoin, and 13-cis retinoic acid) has been reported to be more effective than treatment with 50,000 IU per day of beta-carotene.57 However, because of the potential toxicity of the vitamin A-like drug, it may be preferable to treat leukoplakia with beta-carotene, which is much safer.

      Before the research on beta-carotene was published, vitamin A was used to treat leukoplakia.58 One group of researchers reported that vitamin A (28,500 IU per day) was more effective than beta-carotene in treating people with leukoplakia.59 Another trial found that the combination of 150,000 IU per week of beta-carotene plus 100,000 IU per week of vitamin A led to a significant increase in remission time compared to beta carotene alone in betel nut chewers.52 Women who are or who could become pregnant should not take 100,000 IU of vitamin A per week without medical supervision.

    • Healthy Aging/Senior Health

      Night Blindness

      Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend supplementing with vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency.
      Night Blindness
      ×

      Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency.60,61 Such a deficiency may result from diets low in animal foods (the main source of vitamin A), such as eggs, dairy products, organ meats, and some fish. Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, may also contribute to a vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend 10,000 to 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency. Beta-carotene is less effective at correcting vitamin A deficiency than is vitamin A itself, because it is not absorbed as well and is only slowly converted by the body into vitamin A.

    What Are Star Ratings?
    ×
    Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
    Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
    For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

    Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

    For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

    Temp Title
    ×
    Temp Text

    Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin with four major functions in the body: (1) It helps cells reproduce normally—a process called differentiation (cells that have not properly differentiated are more likely to undergo pre-cancerous changes). (2) It is required for vision; vitamin A maintains healthy cells in various structures of the eye and is required for the transduction of light into nerve signals in the retina. (3) It is required for normal growth and development of the embryo and fetus, influencing genes that determine the sequential development of organs in embryonic development. (4) It may be required for normal reproductive function, with influences on the function and development of sperm, ovaries and placenta.

    References

    1. Semba RD. Vitamin A, immunity, and infection. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:489-99 [review].

    2. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

    3. Stephensen CB, Franchi LM, Hernandez H, et al. Adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A supplements in children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics 1998;101(5):E3 [abstract].

    4. Bresee JS, Fischer M, Dowell SF, et al. Vitamin A therapy for children with respiratory syncytial virus infection: a multicenter trial in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996;15:777-82.

    5. Quinlan KP, Hayani KC. Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:25-30.

    6. Kjolhede CL, Chew FJ, Gadomski AM, et al. Clinical trial of vitamin A as adjuvant treatment for lower respiratory tract infections. J Pediatr 1995;126:807-12.

    7. Pinnock CB, Douglas RM, Badcock NR. Vitamin A status in children who are prone to respiratory tract infections. Aust Paediatr J 1986;22:95-9.

    8. Murphy S, West KP Jr, Greenough WB 3d, et al. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence of infection in elderly nursing-home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1992;21:435-9.

    9. Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Pediatr 2000;137:660-7.

    10. Ross AC. Vitamin A supplementation as therapy—are the benefits disease specific? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:8-9 [review].

    11. Fawzi WW, Mbise RL, Fataki MR, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and severity of pneumonia in children admitted to the hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:187-92.

    12. Benn CS, Aaby P, Bale C, et al. Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. Lancet 1997;350:101-5.

    13. Semba RD. Vitamin A as “anti-infective” therapy, 1920-1940. J Nutr 1999;129:783-91 [review].

    14. Molina EL, Patel JA. A to Z: vitamin A and zinc, the miracle duo. Indian J Pediatr 1996;63:427-31 [review].

    15. Malvy D. Micronutrients and tropical viral infections: one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine. Med Trop (Mars) 1999;59:442-8 [review; in French].

    16. World Health Organization. Expanded programme on immunization: programme for the prevention of blindness nutrition. Joint WHO/UNICEF statement. Vitamin A for measles. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1987;62:133-4.

    17. Coutsoudis A, Broughton M, Coovadia HM. Vitamin A supplementation reduces measles morbidity in young African children: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:890-5.

    18. Rosales FJ, Kjolhede C. A single 210-mumol oral dose of retinol does not enhance the immune response in children with measles. J Nutr 1994;124:1604-14.

    19. Rahmathullah L. Effect of receiving a weekly dose of vitamin A equivalent to the recommended dietary allowances among pre school children on mortality in south India. Indian J Pediatr 1991;58:837-47.

    20. Vijayaraghavan K, Rashmiah G, Suryaprakasam B, et al. Effect of massive dose of vitamin A on morbidity and mortality in Indian children. Lancet 1990;336:1342-53.

    21. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

    22. Frieden TR, Sowell AL, Henning KJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and severity of measles. New York City. Am J Dis Child 1992;146:182-6.

    23. Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Vitamin A treatment of Measles. Pediatrics 1993;91:1014-5.

    24. Coutsoudis A, Coovadia HM, Broughton M, et al. Micronutrient utilisation during measles treated with vitamin A or placebo. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1991;61:199-204.

    25. Campos FA, Flores H, Underwood BA. Effect of an infection on vitamin A status of children as measured by the relative dose response. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:91-4.

    26. Ozsoylu S, Cemeroglu AP, Gunay M. Vitamin A for varicella. J Pediatr 1994;125:1017-8 [letter].

    27. Rumore MM. Vitamin A as an immunomodulating agent. Clin Pharm 1993;12:506-14 [review].

    28. West CE. Vitamin A and measles. Nutr Rev 2000;58:S46-S54.

    29. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

    30. Markowitz LE, Nzilambi N, Driskell WJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and mortality among hospitalized measles patients, Kinshasa, Zaire. J Trop Pediatr 1989;35:109-12.

    31. Arrieta AC, Zaleska M, Stutman HR, Marks MI. Vitamin A levels in children with measles in Long Beach, California. J Pediatr 1992;121:75-8.

    32. Butler JC, Havens PL, Sowell AL, et al. Measles severity and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration among children in the United States. Pediatrics 1993;91:1176-81.

    33. Frieden TR, Sowell AL, Henning KJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and severity of measles. New York City. Am J Dis Child 1992;146:182-6.

    34. Fawzi WW, Chalmers TC, Herrera MG, Mosteller F. Vitamin A supplementation and child mortality. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1993;269:898-903.

    35. Barclay AJ, Foster A, Sommer A. Vitamin A supplements and mortality related to measles: a randomised clinical trial. BMJ 1987;294:294-6.

    36. Hussey GD, Klein M. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. N Engl J Med 1990;323:160-4.

    37. Kawasaki Y, Hosoya M, Katayose M, Suzuki H. The efficacy of oral vitamin A supplementation for measles and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1999;73:104-9 [in Japanese].

    38. Ellison JB. Intensive vitamin A therapy in measles. BMJ 1932;2:708-11.

    39. Anastasakis A, Plainis S, Giannakopoulou T, et at. Xerophthalmia and acquired night blindness in a patient with a history of gastrointestinal neoplasia and normal serum vitamin A levels. Doc Ophthalmol 2013 Apr;126(2):159-62. doi: 10.1007/s10633-012-9370-x. Epub 2013 Jan 20.

    40. Fok JS, Li JY, Yong TY. Visual deterioration caused by vitamin A deficiency in patients after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord 2012 Jun;17:e144-6.

    41. Little DR. Ambulatory management of common forms of anemia. Am Fam Physician 1999;59:1598-604 [review].

    42. Hodges RE, Sauberlich HE, Canham JE, et al. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:876-85 [review].

    43. Bloem MW. Interdependence of vitamin A and iron: an important association for programmes of anaemia control. Proc Nutr Soc 1995;54:501-8 [review].

    44. Lane M, Alfrey CP. The anemia of human riboflavin deficiency. Blood 1965;25:432-42.

    45. Orehek AJ, Kollas CD. Refractory postpartum anemia due to vitamin B6 deficiency. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):834-5 [letter].

    46. Iwama H, Iwase O, Hayashi S, et al. Macrocytic anemia with anisocytosis due to alcohol abuse and vitamin B6 deficiency. Rinsho Ketsueki 1998;39:1127-30 [in Japanese].

    47. Hirschmann JV, Raugi GJ. Adult scurvy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:895-906 [review].

    48. Summerfield AL, Steinberg FU, Gonzalez JG. Morphologic findings in bone marrow precursor cells in zinc-induced copper deficiency anemia. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;97:665-8.

    49. Freycon F, Pouyau G. Rare nutritional deficiency anemia: deficiency of copper and vitamin E. Sem Hop 1983;59:488-93 [review] [in French].

    50. Borgna-Pignatti C, Marradi P, Pinelli L, et al. Thiamine-responsive anemia in DIDMOAD syndrome. J Pediatr 1989;114:405-10.

    51. Neufeld EJ, Mandel H, Raz T, et al. Localization of the gene for thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, on the long arm of chromosome 1, by homozygosity mapping. Am J Hum Genet 1997;61:1335-41.

    52. Stich HF, Rosin MP, Hornby AP, et al. Remission of oral leukoplakias and micronuclei in tobacco/betel quid chewers treated with beta-carotene and with beta-carotene plus vitamin A. Int J Cancer 1988;42:195-9.

    53. Garewal HS, Katz RV, Meyskens F, et al. ß-Carotene produces sustained remission in patients with oral leukoplakia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1305-10.

    54. Liede K, Hietanen J, Saxen L, et al. Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in smokers. Oral Dis 1998;4:78-83.

    55. Toma S, Benso S, Albanese E, et al. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with beta-carotene. Oncology 1992;49:77-81.

    56. Garewal HS, Meyskens FL Jr, Killen D, et al. Response of oral leukoplakia to beta-carotene. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1715-20.

    57. Lippman SM, Batsakis JG, Toth BB, et al. Comparison of low-dose isotretinoin with beta carotene to prevent oral carcinogenesis. N Engl J Med 1993;328:15-20.

    58. Johnson J, Ringsdorf W, Cheraskin E. Relationship of vitamin A and oral leukoplakia. Arch Derm 1963;88:607-12.

    59. Stich HF, Mathews B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair MK. Remission of precancerous lesions in the oral cavity of tobacco chewers and maintenance of the protective effect of ß-carotene or vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:298S-304S.

    60. Anastasakis A, Plainis S, Giannakopoulou T, et at. Xerophthalmia and acquired night blindness in a patient with a history of gastrointestinal neoplasia and normal serum vitamin A levels. Doc Ophthalmol 2013 Apr;126(2):159-62. doi: 10.1007/s10633-012-9370-x. Epub 2013 Jan 20.

    61. Fok JS, Li JY, Yong TY. Visual deterioration caused by vitamin A deficiency in patients after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord 2012 Jun;17:e144-6.

    Copyright © 2015 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com

    The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2016.

Images

Retinol Cream 100000 IU

Vitamin World

Retinol Cream 100000 IU

2 oz. Cream / 100000 IU / Item# 005510
Buy 1, Get 1 Free
Add 2 items into the cart
Details
Add 2 items into the cart to receive the discount.

  • $9.49
    Price per oz. : $4.75

    In Stock

Additional Information

• A vitamin-enriched face and eye cream
• Provides nourishing protection for your skin
• Gentle, lightweight formula

Get the moisture you need for radiant, healthy skin with Retinol Cream. Apply Retinol Cream to your face daily for hydrated skin. You can even apply it around the delicate skin of your eye area for hydrating moisture that’ll make your skin look and feel radiant!
Directions: Apply a small amount to face at bedtime, after cleansing.

Other Ingredients: Water, Propylene Glycol, Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil, Glyceryl Stearate, Mineral Oil, Stearic Acid, Cetyl Esters, Propylene Glycol (and) Diazolidinyl Urea (and) Methylparaben (and) Propylparaben, Triethanolamine, Isopropyl Myristate, Retinyl Palmitate (Vitamin A), Cetyl Alcohol, Dimethicone, Fragrance, Tocopherol (Vitamin E), Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E), Disodium EDTA, Yellow 10.

WARNING: Do not apply to broken or irritated skin or areas affected by rashes. Discontinue use and consult your doctor if skin sensitivity occurs. Avoid contact with eyes. Do not use on children or animals.

Disclaimer

The following information is third party literature provided by Aisle 7. Vitamin World does not endorse, represent or warrant the accuracy or reliability of the content provided by Aisle 7. This content is not approved or recommended by us, does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment, and is not meant to replace professional medical advice or apply to any products. To continue to Aisle 7 please click Continue.

Nutritional Supplement

Vitamin A

This nutrient has been used in connection with the following health goals
  • Immune System Support

    Infection

    Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.
    Infection
    ×
     

    Nutrients useful for maintaining healthy immune function are also applicable for preventing infections. Vitamin A plays an important role in immune system function and helps mucous membranes, including those in the lungs, resist invasion by microorganisms.1 However, most research shows that while vitamin A supplementation helps people prevent or treat infections in developing countries where deficiencies are common,2 little to no positive effect, and even slight adverse effects, have resulted from giving vitamin A supplements to people in countries where most people consume adequate amounts of vitamin A.3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Moreover, vitamin A supplementation during infections appears beneficial only in certain diseases. An analysis of trials revealed that vitamin A reduces mortality from measles and diarrhea, but not from pneumonia, in children living in developing countries.10 A double-blind trial for vitamin A supplementation in Tanzanian children with pneumonia confirmed its lack of effectiveness for this condition.11 In general, parents in the developed world should not give vitamin A supplements to children unless there is a reason to believe vitamin A deficiency is likely, such as the presence of a condition causing malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease). However, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children with measles should be given high-dose vitamin A for several days.

  • Children's Health

    Childhood Diseases

    Vitamin A plays a critical role in proper immune function, it has been used successfully to prevent and treat measles and to treat chicken pox.
    Childhood Diseases
    ×
     

    Preliminary research shows that supplemental vitamin A improves the likelihood that the measles vaccine will provide protection.12 Vitamin A has, since the 1920s, been the subject of much research into the prevention and treatment of childhood exanthems, particularly measles.13 This nutrient has a critical role in proper immune function, and there is evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces the incidence and severity of, and deaths from, childhood measles.14,15 The World Health Organization (WHO) has therefore recommended that children with signs of deficiency receive supplementation with vitamin A. The recommended amounts are 100,000 IU for children younger than one year and 200,000 IU for children older than one year, immediately upon diagnosis, and repeated once the next day and once in one to four weeks.16 A controlled trial of African children given vitamin A supplementation according to the WHO’s recommendations found that severity of measles and its long-term consequences were reduced by 82% on day eight, 61% in week six, and 85% six months after the onset.17

    Another controlled trial found that giving approximately 200,000 IU of vitamin A once during measles illness was not adequate to provide any benefit in African children whose vitamin A status was unknown.18 In a controlled prevention study, Indian children treated with 2,500 mcg (8,333 IU) of vitamin A weekly had fewer measles complications and less than half of the rate of death as compared with children receiving placebo;19 but in another study, Indian children receiving 200,000 IU of vitamin A every six months did not have a different rate of total infectious illness nor rate of death as compared with children receiving placebo.20

    An analysis of 20 controlled trials concluded that vitamin A supplementation reduced deaths from measles respiratory infection by 70%.21 While vitamin A deficiency is widespread in developing countries, it has also been reported in the United States and has been linked with more severe cases of measles.22 The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended supplementation with vitamin A for children between the ages of six months and two years who are hospitalized with measles and its complications. The recommended amount is a single administration of 100,000 IU for children aged 6 to 12 months and 200,000 IU for children older than 1 year, followed by a second administration 24 hours later and a third after four weeks in children who are likely to have vitamin A deficiency.23

    One trial showed that low levels of vitamin A are more prevalent in children with measles than in similar children without measles, with levels rising back to normal several days after the onset of the infection. This observation led the authors of the study to conclude that vitamin A deficiency is a consequence of infection with the measles virus and to recommend supplementation with vitamin A during measles infection even when prior deficiency is not suspected.24 Vitamin A stores have also been shown to be depleted during chicken pox infection,25 and some preliminary data supports its use in treatment of chicken pox. In a controlled trial, in which children without vitamin A deficiency were given either 200,000 IU of vitamin A or placebo one time during chicken pox, the children given vitamin A had shorter duration of illness and fewer severe complications. The researchers then treated the patients’ siblings with vitamin A before chicken pox became evident, and they had an even shorter length of illness.26

    Measles

    In developing countries where vitamin A deficiency is common, preventive supplementation with vitamin A reduced the risk of death in children with measles.
    Measles
    ×
     

    Measles appears to increase the body’s need for vitamin A.27,28 Studies in developing countries have shown that measles infection is more frequent and severe in people with low vitamin A blood levels,29,30 and preliminary research suggests this may also be true in the developed world.31,32,33 Repeatedly in controlled trials, preventive supplementation with vitamin A, at oral doses of up to 400,000 IU per day, reduced the risk of death in children with measles living in developing countries.29,35,36 Whether vitamin A supplementation would help people with measles in developed countries, where deficiency is uncommon, is less clear.29 However, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children with measles be given a short course of high-dose vitamin A. Two controlled studies of urban South African38 and Japanese39 children hospitalized with severe measles showed that supplementation with 100,000 to 400,000 IU of vitamin A resulted in faster recoveries, fewer complications, and fewer pneumonia-related deaths. An older study in England found one ounce per day of cod liver oil (containing about 40,000 IU of vitamin A, plus vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids) reduced measles-related deaths in children hospitalized with severe cases of the disease.40 Such large doses of vitamin A should only be taken under a doctor’s supervision.

  • Eye Health Support

    Night Blindness

    Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend supplementing with vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency.
    Night Blindness
    ×

    Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency.39,40 Such a deficiency may result from diets low in animal foods (the main source of vitamin A), such as eggs, dairy products, organ meats, and some fish. Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, may also contribute to a vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend 10,000 to 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency. Beta-carotene is less effective at correcting vitamin A deficiency than is vitamin A itself, because it is not absorbed as well and is only slowly converted by the body into vitamin A.

  • Heart and Circulatory Health

    Anemia

    Vitamin A deficiency can contribute to anemia, supplementing with this vitamin may restore levels and improve symptoms.
    Anemia
    ×
     

    Deficiencies of iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid are the most common nutritional causes of anemia.41 Although rare, severe deficiencies of several other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A,42,43vitamin B2,44vitamin B6,45,46vitamin C,47 and copper,48,49 can also cause anemia by various mechanisms. Rare genetic disorders can cause anemias that may improve with large amounts of supplements such as vitamin B1.50,51

  • Oral Health

    Leukoplakia

    Vitamin A has been shown to be effective against leukoplakia.
    Leukoplakia
    ×

    Beta-carotene is the most widely used supplement in the treatment of leukoplakia. In a clinical trial of betel nut chewers with leukoplakia, supplementation with 150,000 IU of beta-carotene twice per week for six months significantly increased the remission rate compared with placebo (14.8% vs. 3.0%).52 The effectiveness of beta-carotene for treating leukoplakia was also confirmed in a double-blind trial that used 100,000 IU per day for six months.53 In one trial, supplementation with 33, 333 IU of beta-carotene per day, alone or combined with 50 IU of vitamin E, was reported not to reduce the incidence of leukoplakia.54 These results have also been observed in smaller trials.55,56

    Drug therapy with a synthetic, prescription form of vitamin A (known as Accutane®, isotretinoin, and 13-cis retinoic acid) has been reported to be more effective than treatment with 50,000 IU per day of beta-carotene.57 However, because of the potential toxicity of the vitamin A-like drug, it may be preferable to treat leukoplakia with beta-carotene, which is much safer.

    Before the research on beta-carotene was published, vitamin A was used to treat leukoplakia.58 One group of researchers reported that vitamin A (28,500 IU per day) was more effective than beta-carotene in treating people with leukoplakia.59 Another trial found that the combination of 150,000 IU per week of beta-carotene plus 100,000 IU per week of vitamin A led to a significant increase in remission time compared to beta carotene alone in betel nut chewers.52 Women who are or who could become pregnant should not take 100,000 IU of vitamin A per week without medical supervision.

  • Healthy Aging/Senior Health

    Night Blindness

    Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend supplementing with vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency.
    Night Blindness
    ×

    Night blindness may be an early sign of vitamin A deficiency.60,61 Such a deficiency may result from diets low in animal foods (the main source of vitamin A), such as eggs, dairy products, organ meats, and some fish. Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, may also contribute to a vitamin A deficiency. Doctors often recommend 10,000 to 25,000 IU of vitamin A per day to correct a deficiency. Beta-carotene is less effective at correcting vitamin A deficiency than is vitamin A itself, because it is not absorbed as well and is only slowly converted by the body into vitamin A.

What Are Star Ratings?
×
Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

Temp Title
×
Temp Text

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin with four major functions in the body: (1) It helps cells reproduce normally—a process called differentiation (cells that have not properly differentiated are more likely to undergo pre-cancerous changes). (2) It is required for vision; vitamin A maintains healthy cells in various structures of the eye and is required for the transduction of light into nerve signals in the retina. (3) It is required for normal growth and development of the embryo and fetus, influencing genes that determine the sequential development of organs in embryonic development. (4) It may be required for normal reproductive function, with influences on the function and development of sperm, ovaries and placenta.

References

1. Semba RD. Vitamin A, immunity, and infection. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:489-99 [review].

2. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

3. Stephensen CB, Franchi LM, Hernandez H, et al. Adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A supplements in children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics 1998;101(5):E3 [abstract].

4. Bresee JS, Fischer M, Dowell SF, et al. Vitamin A therapy for children with respiratory syncytial virus infection: a multicenter trial in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996;15:777-82.

5. Quinlan KP, Hayani KC. Vitamin A and respiratory syncytial virus infection. Serum levels and supplementation trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:25-30.

6. Kjolhede CL, Chew FJ, Gadomski AM, et al. Clinical trial of vitamin A as adjuvant treatment for lower respiratory tract infections. J Pediatr 1995;126:807-12.

7. Pinnock CB, Douglas RM, Badcock NR. Vitamin A status in children who are prone to respiratory tract infections. Aust Paediatr J 1986;22:95-9.

8. Murphy S, West KP Jr, Greenough WB 3d, et al. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on the incidence of infection in elderly nursing-home residents: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 1992;21:435-9.

9. Fawzi WW, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin A supplements and diarrheal and respiratory tract infections among children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Pediatr 2000;137:660-7.

10. Ross AC. Vitamin A supplementation as therapy—are the benefits disease specific? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:8-9 [review].

11. Fawzi WW, Mbise RL, Fataki MR, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and severity of pneumonia in children admitted to the hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:187-92.

12. Benn CS, Aaby P, Bale C, et al. Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. Lancet 1997;350:101-5.

13. Semba RD. Vitamin A as “anti-infective” therapy, 1920-1940. J Nutr 1999;129:783-91 [review].

14. Molina EL, Patel JA. A to Z: vitamin A and zinc, the miracle duo. Indian J Pediatr 1996;63:427-31 [review].

15. Malvy D. Micronutrients and tropical viral infections: one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine. Med Trop (Mars) 1999;59:442-8 [review; in French].

16. World Health Organization. Expanded programme on immunization: programme for the prevention of blindness nutrition. Joint WHO/UNICEF statement. Vitamin A for measles. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1987;62:133-4.

17. Coutsoudis A, Broughton M, Coovadia HM. Vitamin A supplementation reduces measles morbidity in young African children: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:890-5.

18. Rosales FJ, Kjolhede C. A single 210-mumol oral dose of retinol does not enhance the immune response in children with measles. J Nutr 1994;124:1604-14.

19. Rahmathullah L. Effect of receiving a weekly dose of vitamin A equivalent to the recommended dietary allowances among pre school children on mortality in south India. Indian J Pediatr 1991;58:837-47.

20. Vijayaraghavan K, Rashmiah G, Suryaprakasam B, et al. Effect of massive dose of vitamin A on morbidity and mortality in Indian children. Lancet 1990;336:1342-53.

21. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

22. Frieden TR, Sowell AL, Henning KJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and severity of measles. New York City. Am J Dis Child 1992;146:182-6.

23. Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Vitamin A treatment of Measles. Pediatrics 1993;91:1014-5.

24. Coutsoudis A, Coovadia HM, Broughton M, et al. Micronutrient utilisation during measles treated with vitamin A or placebo. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1991;61:199-204.

25. Campos FA, Flores H, Underwood BA. Effect of an infection on vitamin A status of children as measured by the relative dose response. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:91-4.

26. Ozsoylu S, Cemeroglu AP, Gunay M. Vitamin A for varicella. J Pediatr 1994;125:1017-8 [letter].

27. Rumore MM. Vitamin A as an immunomodulating agent. Clin Pharm 1993;12:506-14 [review].

28. West CE. Vitamin A and measles. Nutr Rev 2000;58:S46-S54.

29. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. BMJ 1993;306:366-70.

30. Markowitz LE, Nzilambi N, Driskell WJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and mortality among hospitalized measles patients, Kinshasa, Zaire. J Trop Pediatr 1989;35:109-12.

31. Arrieta AC, Zaleska M, Stutman HR, Marks MI. Vitamin A levels in children with measles in Long Beach, California. J Pediatr 1992;121:75-8.

32. Butler JC, Havens PL, Sowell AL, et al. Measles severity and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration among children in the United States. Pediatrics 1993;91:1176-81.

33. Frieden TR, Sowell AL, Henning KJ, et al. Vitamin A levels and severity of measles. New York City. Am J Dis Child 1992;146:182-6.

34. Fawzi WW, Chalmers TC, Herrera MG, Mosteller F. Vitamin A supplementation and child mortality. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1993;269:898-903.

35. Barclay AJ, Foster A, Sommer A. Vitamin A supplements and mortality related to measles: a randomised clinical trial. BMJ 1987;294:294-6.

36. Hussey GD, Klein M. A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles. N Engl J Med 1990;323:160-4.

37. Kawasaki Y, Hosoya M, Katayose M, Suzuki H. The efficacy of oral vitamin A supplementation for measles and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1999;73:104-9 [in Japanese].

38. Ellison JB. Intensive vitamin A therapy in measles. BMJ 1932;2:708-11.

39. Anastasakis A, Plainis S, Giannakopoulou T, et at. Xerophthalmia and acquired night blindness in a patient with a history of gastrointestinal neoplasia and normal serum vitamin A levels. Doc Ophthalmol 2013 Apr;126(2):159-62. doi: 10.1007/s10633-012-9370-x. Epub 2013 Jan 20.

40. Fok JS, Li JY, Yong TY. Visual deterioration caused by vitamin A deficiency in patients after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord 2012 Jun;17:e144-6.

41. Little DR. Ambulatory management of common forms of anemia. Am Fam Physician 1999;59:1598-604 [review].

42. Hodges RE, Sauberlich HE, Canham JE, et al. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:876-85 [review].

43. Bloem MW. Interdependence of vitamin A and iron: an important association for programmes of anaemia control. Proc Nutr Soc 1995;54:501-8 [review].

44. Lane M, Alfrey CP. The anemia of human riboflavin deficiency. Blood 1965;25:432-42.

45. Orehek AJ, Kollas CD. Refractory postpartum anemia due to vitamin B6 deficiency. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):834-5 [letter].

46. Iwama H, Iwase O, Hayashi S, et al. Macrocytic anemia with anisocytosis due to alcohol abuse and vitamin B6 deficiency. Rinsho Ketsueki 1998;39:1127-30 [in Japanese].

47. Hirschmann JV, Raugi GJ. Adult scurvy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:895-906 [review].

48. Summerfield AL, Steinberg FU, Gonzalez JG. Morphologic findings in bone marrow precursor cells in zinc-induced copper deficiency anemia. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;97:665-8.

49. Freycon F, Pouyau G. Rare nutritional deficiency anemia: deficiency of copper and vitamin E. Sem Hop 1983;59:488-93 [review] [in French].

50. Borgna-Pignatti C, Marradi P, Pinelli L, et al. Thiamine-responsive anemia in DIDMOAD syndrome. J Pediatr 1989;114:405-10.

51. Neufeld EJ, Mandel H, Raz T, et al. Localization of the gene for thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, on the long arm of chromosome 1, by homozygosity mapping. Am J Hum Genet 1997;61:1335-41.

52. Stich HF, Rosin MP, Hornby AP, et al. Remission of oral leukoplakias and micronuclei in tobacco/betel quid chewers treated with beta-carotene and with beta-carotene plus vitamin A. Int J Cancer 1988;42:195-9.

53. Garewal HS, Katz RV, Meyskens F, et al. ß-Carotene produces sustained remission in patients with oral leukoplakia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1305-10.

54. Liede K, Hietanen J, Saxen L, et al. Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in smokers. Oral Dis 1998;4:78-83.

55. Toma S, Benso S, Albanese E, et al. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with beta-carotene. Oncology 1992;49:77-81.

56. Garewal HS, Meyskens FL Jr, Killen D, et al. Response of oral leukoplakia to beta-carotene. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1715-20.

57. Lippman SM, Batsakis JG, Toth BB, et al. Comparison of low-dose isotretinoin with beta carotene to prevent oral carcinogenesis. N Engl J Med 1993;328:15-20.

58. Johnson J, Ringsdorf W, Cheraskin E. Relationship of vitamin A and oral leukoplakia. Arch Derm 1963;88:607-12.

59. Stich HF, Mathews B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair MK. Remission of precancerous lesions in the oral cavity of tobacco chewers and maintenance of the protective effect of ß-carotene or vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:298S-304S.

60. Anastasakis A, Plainis S, Giannakopoulou T, et at. Xerophthalmia and acquired night blindness in a patient with a history of gastrointestinal neoplasia and normal serum vitamin A levels. Doc Ophthalmol 2013 Apr;126(2):159-62. doi: 10.1007/s10633-012-9370-x. Epub 2013 Jan 20.

61. Fok JS, Li JY, Yong TY. Visual deterioration caused by vitamin A deficiency in patients after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord 2012 Jun;17:e144-6.

Copyright © 2015 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com

The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2016.