Bee pollen consists of bee saliva and enzymes, mixed with pollen that the bees have brought back to the hive on their bodies. The bees pack the pollen into granules; honey and nectar are sometimes added to the granules. Bee pollen contains small amounts of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Bee pollen will vary from batch to batch and by location, because the pollen component will be unique to the plants the bees have visited. If pollen is collected from residential or farming areas where pesticides and other chemicals are used, these will remain in the final product.
Bee pollen may be confused with honey, honeycomb, propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom, though none of these products contain bee pollen. Propolis is a resinous mixture of tree sap, leaves, and botanical matter that bees use to seal small cracks in the hive; royal jelly is secreted by worker bees and fed to bee larva and the queen bee.